Posted by: catindiaonline | September 13, 2008

Idioms [ GMAT Sentence correction notes III ]

Idioms:

  1. Credited with:

Carthagians are still commonly credited with having salted Roman fields during the was.

Wrong: Credited as, credited for

  1. Refuse A for B:

People can refuse social security payments in favor of private sources of income.

Wrong: Refuse in favor of

  1. Subjunctive:

Procedure requires that he + verb in subjunctive form.

  1. Regarded as:

Brady is regarded as one of the greatest 19th century photographers.

Wrong: Regarded to be.

  1. Consider

Destruction of rain forests is considered a major threat to environment.

Wrong: Considered as, Considered to be.

If the Object complement is far away from object, use *consider to be*

  1. Prefer A to B:

I prefer Korean food to Japanese.

Wrong: Prefer A over B.

  1. Exchange A for B

He hopes to exchange money to mind.

Wrong: Exchange with.

  1. Afflicted with:

He is afflicted with common cold.

Wrong: Afflicted from.

  1. each other/One another

When two sides are involved then use each other or other, as in “refusal of each side to acknowledge the other as legitimate party is the core of the problem”.

Use one another when more than two things involved.

  1. Just as…so
  2. Warned of

Patients should be warned of the potential risk of medicine.

Wrong: Warned about.

  1. Believe X to be Y

After seeing the flying saucer, I

believe UFOs to be a real phenomenon.

Wrong: believe X as Y.

  1. Care about:

Donot care about problems.

  1. Contrast A with B:

If you contrast my proposal with your’s then you will find that there is not much similarity.

  1. Compare A to B:

For dissimilar things

  1. Compare A with B:

For similar things

  1. Decide to/Decide on

Decide to + verb:

We decided to continue.

Decide on + noun:

We decided on the new format.

  1. Different from:

New paper format is different from old one.

Wrong: Different than.

  1. That Aim to + verb:

Rules that aim to identify causes.

Aimed at + noun:

I am aiming at my target.

  1. Debate over:

A debate over adequacy of current law.

Wrong: Debate About

  1. Convince X to do something and Convince X that something is true.

Both of these are correct idioms.

Tecumseh struggled to convince his fellow Shawnees, as well as the other Indian tribes, that they should unite against the white settlers rather than continue their separate wars.

Tecumseh struggled to convince his fellow Shawnees, as well as the other Indian tribes, to unite against the white settlers.

  1. aid in

I asked for god’s aid in doing things correctly.

Aid to is correct when you talk for financial help as in Aid to a.

Wrong: aid to do things correctly.

  1. Just as…

just as polio vaccine is given to every person to protect the few who might actually contract polio, mass dietary change is needed to protect the significant number who are susceptible to the life-threatening effects of press eating habits.

  1. Between A and B/Between

When we’re talking about a one-to-one relationship between two groups, “between” is correct. Now imagine we still have those relationships, but multiplied. For example, diplomatic relations between countries or friendships between people.

Notice how the meaning would change for these:

  • Friendships among people…
    Sounds like it could be a three-way friendship. smile.gif
  • Friendships between people…
  • Relations between countries…
  • Relations among countries…
    Three-way (or more) again. tongue.gif

  1. evidence of/evidence to

EVIDENCE TO/EVIDENCE OF

You can provide evidence to a court, even enough evidence to convict

someone; but the standard expression “is evidence of’requires “of”

rather than “to” in sentences like this: “Driving through the front

entrance of the Burger King is evidence of Todd’sinexperience in

driving.” If you could substitute “evidences” or “evidenced” in your

sentence, you need “of.”

  1. Expresses that/ says that

EXPRESSES THAT/SAYS THAT

“In her letter Jane expresses that she is getting irritated with me for

not writing” should be corrected to “In her letter Jane says that. . . “

You can express an idea or a thought, but you can’t ever express that.

In technical terms, “express” is a transitive verb and requires an

object.

  1. One

FOR ONE/FOR ONE THING

People often say “for one” when they mean “for one thing”: “I really

want to go to the movie. For one, Kevin Spacey is my favorite actor.”

(One what?) The only time you should use “for one” by itself to give an

example of something is when you have earlier mentioned a class to which

the example belongs: “There are a lot of reasons I don’t want your old

car. For one, there are squirrels living in the upholstery.” (One

reason.)

Ideally if there is ambiguity in which noun one refers to then its better to make it explicit as in.

A natural response of communities devastated by earthquake or flood is to rebuild on the same site, overlooking that the forces that cause the disaster could cause another one. (This is wrong)

(Correct one is). …communities devastated by earthquake or flood is to rebuild on the same site, without considering that the forces that caused the disaster could also cause another such disaster.

  1. Hardly ever/ hardly never

HARDLY NEVER/HARDLY EVER

The expression is “hardly ever.”

  1. In regards to/ with regard to

IN REGARDS TO/WITH REGARD TO

Business English is deadly enough without scrambling it. “As regards

your downsizing plan . . .” is acceptable, if stiff. “In regard

to . . .” is also correct. But don’t confuse the two by writing “In

regards to.”

  1. Most always / almost always

MOST ALWAYS/ALMOST ALWAYS

“Most always” is a casual, slangy way of saying “almost always.” The

latter expression is better in writing.

  1. No sooner than/ No Sooner when

NO SOONER WHEN/NO SOONER THAN

The phrase, “No sooner had Paula stopped petting the cat when it began

to yowl” should be instead, “No sooner had Paula stopped petting the cat

than it began to yowl.”

  1. Once in a while/ Once and a while

ONCE AND A WHILE/ONCE IN A WHILE

The expression is “once in a while.”

  1. Only

ONLY

Writers often inadvertently create confusion by placing “only”

incorrectly in a sentence. It should go immediately before the word or

phrase it modifies. “I lost my only shirt” means that I had but one to

begin with. “I lost only my shirt” means I didn’t lose anything else.

“Only I lost my shirt” means that I was the only person in my group to

lose a shirt. Strictly speaking, “I only lost my shirt” should mean I

didn’t destroy it or have it stolen–I just lost it; but in common

speech this is usually understood as being identical with “I lost only

my shirt.” Scrutinize your uses of “only” to make sure you are not

creating unwanted ambiguities.

  1. Ignorant of

He is ignorant of the fact.

Not ignorant to.

Ignorant of is correct.

  1. Happen by accident

Things donot happen on accident, they happen by accident.

  1. Regard, Regards

REGARD/REGARDS

Business English is deadly enough without scrambling it. “As regards

your downsizing plan . . .” is acceptable, if stiff. “In regard to” “and

“with regard to” are also correct. But “in regards to” is nonstandard.

You can also convey the same idea with “in respect to” or “with respect

to.”

  1. Think on/ Think about

THINK ON/THINK ABOUT

An archaic form that persists in some dialects is seen in statements

like “I’ll think on it” when most people would say “I’ll think about

it.”

  1. Less on A than on B

The selection of paintings was based less on A than on B.

  1. Costed more than it originally seemed they would

Researchers are studing plastics that dissolve at different rates, and they are finding that the so-called “quick disintegration” plastics are talking more time to deteriorate than they originally seemed.

A.

B. They seemed originally

C. It seemed that they would originally

D. It originally seemed

E. It originally seemed they would

E is best.

  1. “Only” + a time expression in a clause, or only if:(f) Only when Dr. Schiller has all the facts will he present his report to the committee.
    (g) Only if John Hush is sure that he can win will he run for the job of senator.

  2. Acclaimed as

An artistic presence of the first order, one frequently ranked with Picasso, Stravinsky, and James Joyce, Martha Graham was acclaimed as a great dancer long before her innovative masterworks made her the most honored of American choreographers.

  1. Barely …when
  2. Hardly …before
  3. Scarcely …when
  4. No sooner …than(when)
  5. In addition to being A, B is also C.

In addition to being one of the first restaurants to combine Mediterranean and American tastes, Chez Panisse in Berkeley is also one of the Bay Area’s most established restaurants.

  1. Although:

A negative aspect, positive reality

Even though: extreme form of although.

  1. Despite:

A positive aspect, negative reality.

Inspite of : similar to despite.

  1. So …as to be

Wrong Such … as to be

1. Several years ago the diet industry introduced a variety of appetite suppressants, but some of these drugs caused stomach disorders severe enough to have them banned by the Food and Drug Administration.

(A) stomach disorders severe enough to have them

(B) stomach disorders that were severe enough so they were

(C) stomach disorders of such severity so as to be

(D) such severe stomach disorders that they wereD

(E) such severe stomach disorders as to be

D is correct answare.

  1. Combine A with B

51. The exhibition of art from Nubians, the site of a Black civilization that goes back to the fourth millennium B.C., makes clear the Nubians combined artistic elements from Egypt to that of sub-Saharan Africa.

(A) the Nubians combined artistic elements from Egypt to that

(B) that the Nubians combined artistic elements from Egypt to that

(C) the Nubians combined artistic elements from Egypt with that

(D) that the Nubians combined artistic elements from Egypt with thoseD

(E) that Nubians combined artistic elements from Egypt and those

D is correct answare

2. The Forbidden City in Beijing, from which the emperors ruled by heavenly mandate, was a site which a commoner or foreigner could not enter without any permission, on pain of death.

(A) which a commoner or foreigner could not enter without any permission,

(B) which a commoner or foreigner could enter without any permission only

(C) which no commoner or foreigner could enter without permission,

(D) which, without permission, neither commoner or foreigner could only enter,C

(C) which no commoner or foreigner could enter without permission,

(E) which, to enter without permission, neither commoner or foreigner could do,

C is correct answare.

  1. Grounds for

American conservatives have no valid ideological grounds for sympathising with the Pretoria regime

  1. Help to

Help in ing form is wrong.

  1. Concur in a decision

Concur with is wrong

  1. Directive and order donot take that to connect the next clause.

As in directive prohibiting is correct but directive that prohibited is wrong.

Order to do is correct but ordet that is wrong.

  1. Situation in which is better than situation where…
  2. So adjective as to

Such adjective as to is wrong.

  1. Responsible for:

Responsible to is wrong.

Sartre believed each individual is responsible to choose one course of action over another one, that it is the choice that gives value to the act, and that nothing that is not acted upon has value.

(A) each individual is responsible to choose one course of action over another one

(B) that each individual is responsible for choosing one course of action over another

(C) that each individual is responsible, choosing one course of action over another

(D) that each individual is responsible to choose one course of action over the otherB

(E) each individual is responsible for choosing one course of action over other ones

  1. Worried about:

Worried over is wrong

Administration worried over the impact of new policy on the workforce set up a committee to look the matter in details.

  1. Crucial in

The debate over bilingual education centers on the issue of whether the United States should foster the idea of single common language, an idea, some believe, that has in the past been crucial in binding diverse constituencies together.

(A) been crucial in binding diverse constituencies together

(B) been crucial as a binding together of diverse constituencies

(C) been crucial to bind together constituencies that are diverse

(D) become crucial in binding together diverse constituenciesA

(E) become crucial to bind together constituencies that are diverse

A is correct answer.

  1. Contributed to + noun:

School integration plans that involve busing between suburban and central-city areas have contributed, according to a recent study, to significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces any future need for busing.

(A) significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces

(B) significant integration increases in housing, which, in turn, reduces

(C) increase housing integration significantly, which, in turn, reduces

(D) increase housing integration significantly, in turn reducingA

(E) significantly increase housing integration, which, in turn, reduce

  1. Consequence of

A common disability in test pilots is hearing impairment, a consequence of sitting too close to large jet engines for long periods of time.

(A) a consequence of sitting too close to large jet engines for long periods of time

(B) a consequence from sitting for long periods of time too near to large jet engines

(C) a consequence which resulted from sitting too close to large jet engines for long periods of time

(D) damaged from sitting too near to large jet engines for long periods of timeA

(E) damaged because they sat too close to large jet engines for long periods of time

A is correct answare and fine.

  1. Depict something as something
  2. Expected to

The Commerce Department announced that the economy grew during the second quarter at a 7.5 percent annual rate, while inflation eased when it might have been expected for it to rise.

(A) it might have been expected for it to rise

(B) it might have been expected to rise

(C) it might have been expected that it should rise

(D) its rise might have been expectedB

(E) there might have been an expectation it would rise

  1. Prohibiting A from doing B

Wisconsin, Illinois, Florida, and Minnesota have begun to enforce statewide bans prohibiting landfills to accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings.

(A) prohibiting landfills to accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings

(B) prohibiting that landfills accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings

(C) prohibiting landfills from accepting leaves, brush, and grass clippings

(D) that leaves, brush, and grass clippings cannot be accepted in landfillsC

(E) that landfills cannot accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings

  1. Sales of

Q32:

At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous

challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s

multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s

powerful microprocessor chip.

A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patentinfringement

suit and the declining sales for

B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit

and declining sales of

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patentinfringement

suit as well as a decline in sales for

20

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and

the decline in sales of

E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit

as well as the decline in sales for

B is correct

  1. Even though is better than even if but even if is not wrong

Distinguished architecture requires the expenditure of large sums of money, even if it is by no means certain that the expenditure of large sums of money produce distinguished architecture.

(A) even if it is by no means certain that the expenditure of large sums of money produce

(B) even if it is by no means certain that the expenditure of large sums of money will produce

(C) even though there is no certainty that the expenditure of money in large sums produces

(D) even though it is by no means certain that the expenditure of large sums of money producesD

(E) though there is no certainty as to the expenditure of money in large sums producing

D is answer correct.

  1. in which

Idioglossia is a phenomenon, incompletely understood at best, where two persons develop a unique and private language with highly original vocabulary and syntax.

(A) where two persons develop a unique and private language with

(B) when two persons develop a unique and private language having

(C) in which two persons have unique and private language development with

(D) having two persons who develop a unique and private language that hasE

(E) in which two persons develop a unique and private language with

  1. To keep it from: Mean to avoid something being done on it.
  2. Nor

Neither (A or B), nor C !!! also, not (A or B), nor C is fine too.

  1. Concerned for/Concerned with

Concerned for = worried or anxious.

Concerned with = related to.

so the correct one should be “He is concerned for investor relations “

This is concerned with investor relations is probably the right usage.

  1. Crisis is singular whereas crises is plural

Crises is the plural of crisis

  1. x forbids y to do z
  2. Not x but rather y
  3. Distinguish between X and Y for two very dissimilar items
  4. Distinguish X from Y for similar items
  5. Blame A on B

Analysts blamed May’s sluggish retail sales on unexciting merchandise as well as the weather

  1. As likely as
  2. During particular time period
  3. Noun + was + adjective
  4. As such
  5. X has half the chance that Y has
  6. Afraid of is correct and afraid by is wrong.
  7. Met with
  8. Integrate A into B
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Responses

  1. Thanks for this! Wow! Very thorough. To add to this, here is what I would suggest for those struggling with the sentence correction portion of the exam–and particularly idioms. First, you should memorize what is above–help helpful. Second, go out and buy the Official Guide and read the sentence correction section and work the practice problems (Amazon). Third, get and memorize the GMAT idiom list. It has all the official guide idioms. Fourth, work problems over and over.


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